An understanding of probability and uncertainty in real-world situations. Case studies of the role of uncertainty in the life sciences. Analyzing chance phenomena to identify the underlying probabilistic principles and translating them into probability distributions or simulations. Introduction to random variables, expected values, and variance in applied settings to understand decision making in the face of variability. Introduction to common discrete and continuous random variables and their applications to the life sciences. Extensive use of computer simulations to aid in conceptual understanding.